domenica 12 settembre 2010

GLI INNOCENTI E GLI IMPUNITI

IL RESTO DEL CARLINO - LA NAZIONE - IL GIORNO

PRIMO PIANO DOMENICA 12 SETTEMBRE 2010 PAGINA 2

I L COMMENTO

GLI INNOCENTI E GLI IMPUNITI

di MARIO CALIGIURI


OGNI giorno è un bollettino

di guerra. L’episodio di

Padova descritto in queste

pagine conferma che gli orrori

sanitari possono essere considerati

un’autentica emergenza nazionale.

Qualche anno fa l’Associazione

italiana di oncologia medica fece

sapere che tra gli 80 e i 90 morti al

giorno sono causati da errori e

disorganizzazione. Secondo la

stessa associazione, oltre 300mila

sarebbero le persone danneggiate,

con costi valutabili in dieci

miliardi di euro l’anno, pari

all’1% del Pil. Eppure il sistema

sanitario italiano assorbe cifre da

capogiro e nelle regioni queste spese

rappresentano in media i due terzi

dei bilanci. Dopo ogni episodio si

aprono processi, partono ispettori,

si mobilitano commissioni di

inchiesta, si leggono dichiarazioni

allarmate. Ma di questa legittima

indignazione civile poi cosa resta?

Pagano i veri colpevoli? E

quando?

A VIBO VALENTIA nel 2007

morì la sedicenne Federica

Monteleone per una mancanza di

corrente elettrica durante una

banale operazione di appendicite.

Dopo tre anni, il Tribunale ha

condannato otto dei nove imputati.

Le pene inflitte variano da due

anni a un anno e quattro mesi e si

è previsto un rimborso di 800 mila

euro per le parti civili. Questo è

solo il primo grado: poi c’è il

secondo e la Cassazione, con i

tempi della giustizia a tutti noti.

Occorrono commenti? Dopo le

tragedie, i presunti responsabili

spesso continuano serenamente a

svolgere le loro funzioni. Però a

Matera, pochissimi giorni fa, due

medici sono stati sospesi in via

cautelativa dopo che una donna è

morta a seguito di un parto cesareo.

Non mi è sembrata finora una

pratica molto corrente. E’

inevitabile imbattersi in sbagli e

fatalità.

Le responsabilità vanno sempre

valutate a fondo, caso per caso,

senza processi mediatici sommari.

E’ sempre importante stabilire se

certi errori nascano dalla

superficialità, dall’incuria, dalla

disorganizzazione. O se invece

siano il risultato di carenze

strutturali alle quali nemmeno la

buona volontà dei singoli (quando

esiste) riesce a ovviare.

DI SICURO , una maggiore

preparazione, una migliore

distribuzione delle risorse e una più

accurata organizzazione

basterebbero a ridurre le cifre della

tragedia. Mancano i dipendenti?

Difficile sostenerlo, soprattutto in

alcune regioni. Più forte è il

problema dell’organizzazione,

strettamente legato a quello della

selezione dei manager sanitari.

Questo è un punto chiave per

tentare di frenare una mattanza

infinita. Possiamo solo sperare che

il dolore di incolpevoli vittime

serva a muovere qualcosa. Servono

scelte politiche forti.

Altro che governicchi.

venerdì 10 settembre 2010

Partigiani: potrebbe risuccedere?

COSI’ E’ ANCHE SE L”UNITA” NON LO HA MAI DETTO

Questo per avere solo un’idea contro quali personaggi i fascisti avevano a che fare

Ovviamente operando i dovuti distinguo

di Filippo Giannini

Qualche giorno fa un amico lettore, Gianmarco Dosselli mi chiese notizie sull’attentato avvenuto a Milano, in Viale Abruzzi, l’8 agosto 1944. Il signor Gianmarco Dosselli, inviò le notizie a me richieste ampliandole, probabilmente, con altre di fonte diversa, al giornale Bresciaoggi e da qui nuovamente a me rispedite con una diversa interpretazione dei fatti, questi a firma del signor Renato Bettinzioli, probabilmente un redattore del giornale bresciano. Dato che il signor Bettinzioli, a mio modo di vedere ha stravolto i fatti, ritengo mio dovere intervenire. E essenziale una premessa. Dato che l’attentato in questione fu opera di uno o di un gruppo di partigiani, esaminiamo chi erano e come operavano i partigiani. E da ricordare, prima di iniziare, che immediatamente dopo l’8 settembre 1943, da Radio Bari, poi da Radio Salerno e da Radio Napoli, tutte sotto controllo Alleato, venivano lanciati quotidiani appelli incitanti ad uccidere i fascisti. Questo per preparare l’ora del soviet italiano ed eliminare chiunque avesse potuto, in qualche modo, opporsi al disegno comunista. Ed i comunisti si misero immediatamente e diligentemente al lavoro.

Per non perdere tempo anticipo che il partigiano era un illegittimo combattente, in altre parole un fuori legge, quindi, se questo è vero, un fuori legge se uccide qualcuno commette un omicidio.

Ciò premesso, osservo che chiunque per operare nell’ambito legale deve assoggettarsi alle leggi vigenti. Il partigiano operava in codesto ambito? Apriamo il volume riguardante il Diritto Internazionale, a pag. 583 e seguenti, leggiamo: "Il termine legittimi combattenti si riferisce alle persone fisiche che possono esercitare la violenza bellica senza compiere, per questo solo fatto, alcun illecito di diritto internazionale o interno (…)". Mi riferisco alle Convenzioni dell’Aja del 1899 e del 1907 (quindi concepite a quasi mezzo secolo dall’inizio del Secondo Conflitto mondiale, nda) e alla Convenzione di Ginevra del 1929. Per brevità (il lettore che volesse approfondire può consultare il volume da me indicato) riporto: "(Sono legittimi combattenti) purché indossino una uniforme conosciuta dal nemico, portino apertamente le armi, dipendano da ufficiali responsabili e dimostrino di rispettare le leggi di guerra". Il partigiano, almeno per come lo conosciamo e per come più avanti approfondiremo la conoscenza NON rispondeva ad alcuna di queste imperative condizioni: di conseguenza era un illegittimo combattente. I combattenti della Repubblica Sociale Italiana rispondevano a tutte le suddette condizioni, di conseguenza erano legittimi combattenti. Ma le suddette Convenzioni Internazionali prevedevano anche: "Una terza categoria comprende i cosiddetti movimenti di resistenza organizzati in territorio occupato dal nemico. Ai loro membri non è fatto obbligo d’indossare l’uniforme militare: debbono recare un distintivo fisso e riconoscibile a distanza. I loro comandanti devono agire in collegamento con il governo legittimo (?) ed assicurarsi che le armi vengano usate apertamente. Ai combattenti di questa categoria è fatto divieto di agire individualmente, tranne che in casi determinati, nei quali se fatti prigionieri essi devono dimostrare la loro appartenenza al corpo dei combattenti volontari". Poco più avanti, pag. 584, si legge: "Gli illegittimi combattenti vengono ovunque perseguiti con pene severissime e sono generalmente sottoposti alla pena capitale". Poco più avanti ancora, quasi per sanzionare la severità di quanto prescritto, leggiamo: "La rappresaglia si qualifica innanzitutto come atto legittimo (…). La rappresaglia, condotta obbiettivamente illecita, diventa, per le particolari circostanze in cui viene attuata, condotta lecita. Ma tale qualifica non è sufficiente ad individuare la natura giuridica fondamentale. La rappresaglia è, fondamentalmente, una sanzione, cioè una reazione all’atto illecito, e non un mero atto lecito, la cui liceità deriva dall’esistenza di un precedente atto illecito".

Ed ora esaminiamo alcuni esempi di come veniva concepita la lotta partigiana. Come ulteriore premessa è bene ricordare che degli oltre 800 mila legittimi combattenti della Rsi, non uno si arruolò per combattere contro altri italiani, ma solo per contrastare l’invasione anglo-americana che proveniva da sud. Qual’era la tecnica bellica partigiana? E chiaramente espressa dal partigiano Beppe Fenoglio ne Il partigiano Jonny: "Alle spalle, beninteso, perché non si deve affrontare il fascista a viso aperto: egli non lo merita, egli deve essere attaccato con le medesime precauzioni con le quali un uomo deve procedere con un animale". Così il 29 settembre ’43 cadde assassinato il giovane volontario Salvatore Morelli; due uomini nascosti in un cespuglio freddarono il diciottenne studente. Morelli fu solo il primo di una lunga serie di uccisi alle spalle, beninteso. Decine e decine di altri aderenti alla Rsi caddero per mano degli illegittimi combattenti. Per ordine di Mussolini sino a metà del mese di novembre non venne applicato il diritto di rappresaglia. Un elenco sommario dei caduti viene riportato nel libro di E. Accolla Lotta su tre fronti.

A cosa tendevano questi attentati? Le finalità riportate dall’ex fascistissimo poi super antifascista e capo partigiano Giorgio Bocca, fanno rabbrividire; ecco come Giorgio Bocca intendeva la lotta partigiana: "Il terrorismo ribelle non è fatto per prevenire quello dell’occupante, ma per provocarlo, per inasprirlo. Esso è autolesionismo premeditato: cerca le ferite, le punizioni, le rappresaglie per coinvolgere gli incerti, per scavare il fosso dell’odio. E una pedagogia impietosa, una lezione feroce". Quale mente diabolica può giustificare una lotta avente queste finalità? Vi ricordate il Presidente più amato dagli italiani, Sandro Pertini quando si recava a rendere omaggio ai martiri delle Cave Ardeatine? Vi ricordate come si guardava attorno per accertarsi che ci fossero le camere per le riprese TV, mentre si asciugava la lacrimuccia che gli sgorgava pietosa? Ma non ricordava, in quel momento, che era stato uno degli artefici della morte di quegli sventurati in quanto uno dei capi del CVdL, quindi uno degli autori dell’ordine dell’attentato di Via Rasella che ebbe come conseguenza la rappresaglia delle Cave Ardeatine? Ma certo che lo sapeva, come sapeva che i tedeschi si sarebbero avvalsi del diritto di rappresaglia! La verità è che tanti furbacchioni sapevano che quei morti avrebbero fruttato onori e prebende. Così a Cuneo, così a Marzabotto, come a Via Rasella e cento e cento altri casi simili. Boia se si è presentato un attentatore, uno solo ad assumersi le responsabilità e salvare gli ostaggi. Per la verità uno ci fu. Quel certo Salvo D’Aquisto, ma Lui non vale: era un fascista riconosciuto.

Ed ora veniamo all’attentato dell’agosto 1944.

Propongo la testimonianza di Franco Bandini, venuto a mancare, purtroppo, pochi anni fa. Bandini fu uno dei più attendibili storici e testimone diretto di quei terribili giorni. Egli ha scritto (Il Giornale, 1/9/1996): "Al principio dell’agosto 1944, gli Alleati sono ormai arrivati agli Appennini, e dai ravvicinati campi d’aviazione i loro cacciabombardieri sciamavano ogni giorno sulle strade della pianura Padana centrale, mitragliando qualunque cosa si muova, perfino il singolo ciclista. L’afflusso di viveri dalle campagne si riduceva quasi a zero e si cominciava a soffrire letteralmente la fame (…). Ed è subito crisi grave per i bambini, soprattutto per i neonati. Le loro madri hanno poco latte. Spinto da impulsi personali e del tutto isolati, che ci rimarranno per sempre sconosciuti, ci pensa un anziano maresciallo della Wehrmacht che quando può e come può fa il giro delle campagne più a portata di mano, si rifornisce di latte e lo parcheggia senza orari fissi, ma sempre nello stesso luogo, all’angolo tra Viale Abruzzi e Piazzale Loreto (…). Attorno al camioncino la folla dei padri e delle madri si divide il latte, con quella fratellanza che viene dalla comune disgrazia. Alle nove una mano inavvertita depone sul sedile della guida il suo ordigno mortale. Nell’esplosione e poche ore dopo muoiono sei bimbi, una donna che non sarà mai identificata e due giovani padri. Tra i tredici feriti gravi altri sei tra bambini, madri e padri, spireranno il giorno dopo, portando il bilancio finale a 15 morti, sette feriti gravi e qualche decina di leggeri. L’unico che se la cava è il maresciallo tedesco, per cui la strage rimane affare italiano al novantanove per cento. Quando un furibondo Comando germanico della Sichereit ingiunge a quello italiano di procedere a una rappresaglia (giusto quanto ha riportato Giorgio Bocca, nda) nella misura di uno per uno. Piero Barini, Prefetto, si dimette, il Cardinale Schuster interviene con slancio e coraggio, e lo stesso Mussolini protesta con violenza. La verità è che la Repubblica di Mussolini e le stesse forze tedesche stanno camminando su un filo del rasoio (…)". Seguendo la regola ormai convalidata, Visone, o chi per lui non rispose al bando che preavvertiva la rappresaglia qualora il responsabile non si fosse presentato. Così il 10 agosto vennero prelevati dal carcere di san Vittore quindici persone e fucilate a piazzale Loreto. Ma il cerchio (che poi fu una spirale) non si chiuse con questo fatto doloroso. Seguirà la rappresaglia alla rappresaglia: i partigiani fucilarono a loro volta 45 militari italiani e tedeschi caduti nelle loro mani (30 italiani e 15 tedeschi).

Quanto riportato è solo un episodio di una faida nazionale che è, ancora, tutta da scrivere. Mi auguro che quanto sopra trattato risulti chiaro il mio dissenso dalla tesi del signor Renato Bettinzioli in quanto, ripeto, confido più nella testimonianza di Franco Bandini che in quella del tanto politicizzato signor Bettinzioli.

Prima di terminare desidero proporre una notizia che, molto probabilmente, è sconosciuta alla maggior parte dei lettori. Riprendiamo il volume Diritto Internazionale e apriamolo a pagg. 794-795 e leggiamo: "(…). L’art. 33 della IV Convenzione di Ginevra del 1949, in deroga a quanto prima era consentito dall’art. 50 dei Regolamenti dell’Aja del 1899 e del 1907, proibisce in modo tassativo le misure di repressione collettiva, di cui si ebbe abuso delittuoso nell’ultimo conflitto (…)". Quindi il Diritto di rappresaglia se era riconosciuto e consentito nel periodo bellico, alla fine del conflitto venne proibito in modo tassativo. Allora chiedo: perché quando detto Diritto era lecito viene continuamente ricordato e condannato, mentre quando il Diritto di rappresaglia, venne tassativamente proibito, i Paesi che ne fanno uso, e tutt’ora se ne avvalgono, non vengono mai ricordati? E mi rivolgo alle rappresaglie commesse dai sovietici in Afghanistan, dagli anglo americani in Corea, in Vietnam, in Irak e, ancora, in Afghanistan. E gli israeliani che per il ferimento o per la morte di un loro connazionale hanno scatenato e scatenano rappresaglie su inermi civili causando morti, feriti e distruzioni.

Spero di avere una risposta a questo quesito, magari dal signor Renato Bettinzioli. Così che, dato che chi scrive queste note ha una sua risposta, possiamo vedere se, almeno su un punto, le nostre idee possano collimare.


giovedì 9 settembre 2010

Time for Helicopter Ben to Drop Some Money

A Solution to the Federal Debt Crisis? Time for Helicopter Ben to Drop Some Money on Mainstream

National Infrastructure Bank: Another Trilateral Ripoff?

National Infrastructure Bank: Another Trilateral Ripoff? PDF Print E-mail
By Patrick Wood
September 9, 2010

Obama’s slick 2010 Labor Day speech that promised an additional Federal stimulus for a sick economy, was a ringer. Here's why -- buried in the $50 bil­lion infra­struc­ture stimulus promise is the fol­lowing statement:

It sets up an Infra­struc­ture Bank to leverage fed­eral dol­lars and focus on the smartest invest­ments.”

Infrastructure Bank? Smartest investments?

Obama would have you think that this was his brainchild, but it is not. It will, however, effec­tively cen­tralize another key area of our economy, namely infra­struc­ture, into a gov­ern­ment run enter­prise that mostly ben­efits the pri­vate capital of the global elite, and in particular, members of the Trilateral Commission.

For a historical perspective, we need to look back to August 2007 during the Bush administration when S.1926 was intro­duced (National Infra­struc­ture Bank Act of 2007) by Sen. Chris Dodd (D-CT) and Chuck Hagel (R-NE).

The failed bill pro­vided for an inde­pen­dent gov­ern­ment entity (think FDIC, for instance) with a five-member board appointed by the Pres­i­dent and con­firmed by the Senate.

In 2009, the Obama Administration promoted similar legislation introduced into the House as H.R.2521 by Rep. Rosa DeLauro (D-CT) to "facilitate efficient investments and financing of infrastructure projects and new job creation through the establishment of a National Infrastructure Development Bank, and for other purposes." [Emphasis added] The Administration was so certain that this would pass (it has not) that the 2010 budget included appropriations for a National Infrastructure Bank. (See Investing for Success, Brookings Institution, p.11)

Dodd him­self called S.1926 a unique and pow­erful public-private part­ner­ship” that would offer a “fresh solu­tion to the chal­lenge of rebuilding the nation’s infra­struc­ture.” It was orig­i­nally to be funded by a $60 bil­lion bond issue which would be then lever­aged with pri­vate cap­ital. Obama’s new twist is to forget the bond and just give $50 bil­lion of tax­payer money directly to kick­-start the NIB.

A public-private partnership in this context is reminiscent of the World Bank's Public-Private Partnership in Infrastructure program (PPPI) whose objective "is to provide capacity building to help client governments create the proper environment to develop successful and sustainable PPPs, as well as to provide technical assistance to client countries in issues related to PPP program design, development, and implementation."

However, the World Bank explains their agenda more fully: "The program initially focuses on core infrastructure sectors– energy, water, transport, and telecommunications– and will progressively cover the main social sectors such as education, health and housing." This may suggest the intended meaning of "other purposes" mentioned above in H.R.2421.

Obama made no men­tion of NIB rev­enue bonds that would be used to pay back loans with by tolls, fees, etc. Most importantly, all infra­struc­ture spending/lending/appropriations would cir­cum­vent Con­gress for­ever more. In fact, the whole affair would be off-agency, meaning that the accounting for it would not show up in the national budget, but would potentially create a huge contingent liability for taxpayers down the road.

So, who were the policy wonks behind the NIB and S.1926 in 2007? (You know it wasn’t Dodd or Hagel!)

Fortunately, the press release on Dodd’s own web­site gives full credit:

“Last year, Sen­a­tors Dodd and Hagel signed on to a set of ‘Guiding Prin­ci­ples for Strength­ening America’s Infra­struc­ture’ devel­oped by the Center for Strategic and Inter­na­tional Studies (CSIS) Com­mis­sion on Public Infra­struc­ture,” said CSIS Pres­i­dent and CEO John Hamre. “These prin­ci­ples were estab­lished to rec­om­mend changes to rebuild America’s decaying infra­struc­ture. CSIS is proud to have helped stim­u­late this impor­tant initiative.

Proud, indeed!

This trai­torous and glob­alist think tank was orig­i­nally estab­lished by a founding member of the Tri­lat­eral Com­mis­sion, David Abshire. The current CSIS board is stacked with notorious Tri­lat­eral Com­mis­sion mem­bers like Zbig­niew Brzezinski, William Brock, Harold Brown, Richard Armitage, Carla Hills (archi­tect of NAFTA), Henry Kissinger, Joseph Nye, James Schlesinger and Brent Scow­croft.

This supposedly "bi-partisan" S.1926 was subsequently co-sponsored by twelve other senators including Hillary Clinton and, you guessed it, then-Senator Barrack Hussein Obama. This is one more piece of evi­dence that both Clinton and Obama operate solidly within the Tri­lat­eral orbit.

There is no argu­ment that the U.S. infra­struc­ture is a sham­bles. The Amer­ican Society of Civil Engi­neers esti­mates that it would take $1.6 tril­lion to fix it. The final tab will be much higher.

Of course, nei­ther the Feds nor the states have that kind of money but the Trilateral Commission has repeatedly proven its ability to sucker the tax­payers into paying for the Commission's global trade schemes… in this case, the final imple­men­ta­tion of NAFTA (North American Free Trade Agreement) trade routes throughout the U.S.

As reported in my detailed 2005 report, Toward a North American Union, NAFTA was created in the first place exclusively by members of the Trilateral Commission: George H.W. Bush, Carla Hills, Bill Clinton and Al Gore.

In recent years, NAFTA's infrastructure grid has been developed and plotted by an organization known as the North America Corridor Coalition, Inc. (NASCO).

The recently updated NASCO web site shows a plethora of infrastructure plans that are tightly integrated with the implementation of NAFTA, which will undoubtedly be brought into play through the new National Infrastructure Bank.


Citizen revolts in Texas and Oklahoma in 2007-2008 were successful at smacking down the infamous Trans-Texas NAFTA Super-Corridor along I-35. This likely will not happen again.

Such pesky citizens and their state governments will be rendered irrelevant with decisions being made at the national level by a pri­vate board that will operate behind closed doors with little or no public input or recourse. The Brookings Institution explains it this way:

"Multi-jurisdictional projects are neglected in the current federal investment process in surface transportation, due to the insufficient institutional coordination among state and local governments that are the main decision makers in transportation. The NIB would provide a mechanism to catalyze local and state government cooperation and could result in higher rates of return compared to the localized infrastructure projects." (ibid, Brookings Institution)

Thus, where local and state government cooperation is lacking, the NIB would "catalyze" projects and make them happen in spite of such "insufficient institutional coordination".

In short, the NIB scheme sets up the American taxpayer for yet another pil­lage and plunder operation at the hands of the Tri­lat­eral Commission and their global elite cronies. When projects fail, taxpayers will pay for that as well.

S.1926 did not pass in 2008 and H.R. 2521 did not pass in 2009, but now that Obama has put it at the top of his agenda, it will likely pass before December 31, 2010. Or… Obama could simply create it by fiat through an Exec­u­tive Order!

How much more Trilateral abuse can the taxpayer's Treasury endure before the whole economic system in the U.S. just collapses from exhaustion? No one can say for sure, but it seems awfully close to this writer!

Unfortunately, mid-term elections will do absolutely nothing to reduce the influence of this nefarious and unelected group that quietly hijacked the U.S. Executive Branch as far back as 1976 with the election of James Earl Carter and Walter Mondale, both of whom were early members of the Trilateral Commission. That and every administration since then has been stocked full of Commission members, all eager to promote Trilateral-style globalism and demote U.S. sovereignty and prosperity.

Other resources:

CSIS Commission on Public Infrastructure

North America's Corridor Coalition, Inc.

World Bank: Public-Private Partnership in Infrastructure

National Infrastructure Bank Act of 2007 (S.1926

Investing for Success, Brookings Institution

Toward a North American Union, The August Review

-----------------------

Patrick Wood is the editor of The August Review, The August Forecast and is Executive Director of Idaho for Sovereignty and Free Enterprise (Idaho-SAFE).

Two job opportunities at the Bretton Woods Project

Two job opportunities at the Bretton Woods Project

The Bretton Woods Project is looking for two motivated individuals to join its dynamic team. These positions offer an exciting opportunity to make a real contribution to changing international financial institutions so they work for poverty eradication, the environment and human rights. The Project focuses on the World Bank and the IMF to challenge their power, open policy space, and promote alternative approaches. We serve as an information provider, watchdog, networker and advocate.

*** Please forward on to your networks, colleagues, and contacts ***


1) Research assistant (paid internship)

The purpose of this role will be: to provide research and administrative support in relation to our work on reform of the World Bank.

Location: London, UK
Remuneration: £14,287 per annum + contributory pension
Six-month contract (with a possibility of renewal for a further six months, depending on performance)
Deadline: Sunday 26 September 2010
Interviews will be held the week of the 18 October 2010
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2) Research and communications officer

The purpose of this role will be to: coordinate and drive forward the organisation's communications work in conjunction with our management team; assist with monitoring of and issue-based research on the World Bank and relevant economic justice issues; support fundraising and report writing; and assist with the efficient running of the Project.

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Money, Power and Sovereignty

Money, Power and Sovereignty: How we’ve all been caught in the “debt trap.”

By Thomas H. Greco

This is a brilliant and inspiring presentation by Australian, Jeremy Lee, in which he clearly relates how Australia has gone from being the richest nation in the world to being massively in debt to global banking and corporate interests. It is a story that applies equally to America and virtually every country of the world.If you want to understand how your sovereignty and freedom have been taken away, watch this six part video.

mercoledì 8 settembre 2010

I BIGLIETTI DI STATO

I BIGLIETTI DI STATO.

Secondo Giovanni Passalacqua (1) "si possono far rientrare nel debito patrimoniale, seppure da questo nettamente distinte, le emissioni di monete e biglietti dello Stato il cui provento viene registrato nel bilancio e nel conto generale del patrimonio dello Stato tra le passività consolidate, perpetue e irredimibili". Questa concezione dei biglietti di Stato non è quella prevalsa nella storia del Debito Pubblico Italiano. Se. infatti, oggi l'importanza delle monete di Stato è del tutto trascurabile dato il regime cartaceo inconvertibile in cui da tempo viviamo, nel passato il sistema del gold-standard e gold-exchange standard non permetteva alle banche di emissione di eccedere nella stampa di carta-moneta al di là dell'ammontare "coperto", da riserve di metallo prezioso (oro e argento). Quindi, quando il Tesoro richiedeva alle banche di emissione consistenti finanziamenti monetari, che non si potevano configurare come anticipazioni temporanee, la corrispondente carta-moneta veniva denominata "biglietti" di Stato e, in forza di questa denominazione, l'intera circolazione monetaria veniva dichiarata inconvertibile (corso forzoso). Poiché tali biglietti di Stato avevano un costo per l'erario assai basso e se ne riteneva la circolazione temporanea sul medio periodo, dal momento che si effettuavano periodicamente operazioni di ritorno al regime a copertura metallica (nel testo abbiamo illustrato quella del 1882 e quella del 1926), essi venivano inclusi nel debito fluttuante.

Si noti, tuttavia, che i 340-400 milioni di biglietti lasciati in circolazione dopo l'abolizione del corso forzoso nel 1882, proprio perché considerati permanenti, erano stati collocati tra il debito patrimoniale. Per motivi di coerenza delle statistiche presentate, sono stati anch'essi ricondotti fra il debito fluttuante.

Tra il decennio 1890 e gli anni '20 furono in uso, inoltre, i "buoni di cassa", vera e propria carta-moneta a circolazione limitata emessa dal Tesoro che, però, possedeva copertura metallica nelle casse del Tesoro. Per tale motivo i buoni di cassa non venivano considerati all'epoca parte del Debito fluttuante e neppure noi abbiamo ritenuto di includerli; essi non raggiunsero mai ammontari consistenti.

( 900 milioni di biglietti di stato da 500 lire vennero stampati da Aldo Moro )

(1) Passalacqua (1977).

BIBLIOGRAFIA

Ministero del Tesoro (1926) Relazione della Direzione Generale del Tesoro, 1918-1925, Roma, pp. 340-44.

G. Passalacqua, (1977) Il bilancio dello Stato, Milano, F. Angeli.

C. Supino, (1929) Storia della circolazione cartacea in Italia (dal 1860 al 1928), Milano


Cartamoneta emessa senza creare debito pubblico:

http://aes.iupui.edu/rwise/banknotes/italy/ItalyP30b-2Lire-1944_f.jpg
http://aes.iupui.edu/rwise/banknotes/italy/ItalyP30b-2Lire-1944_b.jpg

THE POPE'S BANKS IN AMERICA, THE GIANNINI FAMILY, and THE AMERICAN CIA

THE POPE'S BANKS IN AMERICA,
THE GIANNINI FAMILY,
and THE AMERICAN CIA--PART ONE

by Sherman H. Skolnick


The Pope has had at least three banks in America.

What later was called the Continental Bank of Chicago, was founded in Chicago under different names prior to the American Civil War. About the same time as the setting up in 1857 of the Chicago Board of Trade with which the Continental became interwoven. Their transactions were so incestuous,,, how could one tell one from another? Early in its highly corrupt history, the Board of Trade was [and some say, still is] such a gambling hell, that Western Union Telegraph once cut off its wire there, refusing them services.

From early on, the Bank as well as the Board of Trade were supervised by the British and French Rothschilds, jointly with the Pope and the Papal States. And from early on, representatives of both the Vatican and the British monarchy sat on the Board of Continental. Few understand enough about all this to easily conceive of the Pope and the Queeen, together. In the public mind, at best, these are forces of friction.

Traditionally, members of the CBOT were those of the Irish Catholic and some few of the Jewish aristocracy, not your everyday ethnic and religious folk. As strange as it may seem to ousiders, this raucous gang was fully acceptable to and allowed themselves to be supervised by the representatives of the British royal house together with the Vatican.

From the onset, the Rothschilds were instrumental in the grain trading. To those who know a lot about the bloody conflict, called the Civil War in the North and the War Between the States in the South, President Abraham Lincoln's proposed post-war policies were bound to cause problems. The 16th President proposed to bind up the wounds of the Nation and not to be further destructive of the rebellious, now vanquished South. That policy would have permitted the South to as quickly as possible resume production of commodities, such as cotton. But, the Rothschilds, however, had in place speculations, in Chicago and New York, by which they would greatly profit if production would NOT soon resume and cotton prices were high or went higher.

The largest importer of U.S. cotton had been England for monopolistic textile production. And some contend the Civil War was fomented by Great Britain itching to take back the American continent as a British puppet colony,having failed to do so by the War of 1812. States' rights and the slavery issues, some say, were simply a gut-wrenching financial and emotional excuse to smash up the united federal republic.

Secretly involved in the Rothschild speculations to profit from high prices, post-war, were key members of the U.S. Congress. As part of this cabal, the head of what is now called the U.S. Secret Service, Lafayette C. Baker, plotted to create a security vacuum [like later in Dallas, 1963]. at some event where a convenient Southern assassin would be permitted to blow out the brains of Lincoln, the party-spoiler [or John F. Kennedy, who stepped in the face of the Oil Cartel].

To set an example, understood by some, Lincoln was assasssinated on highly Catholic religious Good Friday, a few days after the War ended. A key assassination player fled, and took up refuge in the Vatican. Rothschild agent, August Belmont, and his conspiratorial ring, their speculative positions secured, prospered greatly. Lincoln's surviving son Todd somehow fell in with his father's financial enemies. Very late in life, Todd said as to the papers he had assembled, that if the papers had been known, and revealed earlier, press and railroad owners, those who claimed to be Lincoln's friends, would all have been hung, for they plotted the President's demise. The documents showed how the Continental Bank had handled the finances for the political assassination of Abraham Lincoln. Todd reportedly burned the documents. [Not all of them.]

Amidst the growing bank collapses of the Great Depression, in 1931, the Federal Government through a massive loan, bailed out failing Continental Bank. This was also abou the time that Italian strongman Benito Mussolini bailed out the money-starved Vatican. The events, to some, are related. Thereafter, beholden to the central government, Continental became a convenient link to espionage. Continental allowed its facilities to be used to disguise government paid provocateurs and con-men used to manipulate public opinion. [Resulting in a little known federal court case against Continental in the 1970s. We have the file.

In 1984, again sinking, Continental had some some of its principal owners jump ship about six weeks before its plight become more known. As major owners of its parent holding company, the Vatican and the Queen of England sold THEIR shares before the market price went to almost zero. [I was the first to publicly correctly estimate the run on Continental as 20 billion dollars of flight capital.] A major owner of the bank itself, Walter J. Cummings, Jr., prevented hungry litigators from deluging the federal courts with damage suits against the Bank. Cummings was Chief Judge of the U.S. Court of Appeals in Chicago, one step below the U.S. Supreme Court. The high court in Washington hearing very few cases, Cummings' Court was, in effect, the end of the line for most federal litigation from Illinois, Indiana, and Wisconsin, the 7th Federal Circuit. Off the record, Chief Judge Cummings threatened reprisals against lawyers if they brought a flood of damage suits against his Bank.

After all, Judge Cummings was a "man of trust" for the Vatican, safeguarding their interests in his Bank and in his Court. He did NOT disqualify in related litigation. Guess who won in his crooked Court?

Another financial enterprise of the Pope in the U.S. is Bank of America. They have done a fairly good jon to conceal the Vatican ownership. They paid for a puff piece book, called, "Biography of A Bank- The Story of Bank of America N.T. and S.A." by Marquis James and Bessie Rowland James. Published 1954 by Harper & Brothers, and more or less the standard reference work on the bank's history.

They would have you believe that Bank of America National Trust and Savings Association was at the time of the book "the largest bank in the world". Bank mergers now occurring so rapidly, it is hard to say which is NOW the world's largest Bank. They would further have you believe that this money ship, up to 1930 called Bank of Italy, was founded by Amadeo Peter Giannini. And that the Bank was able to spread out all over the world because Giannini was so nice in helping people following the 1906 earthquake in San Francisco. They were kept out of being a New York money center bank by the agent and front for the British Monarchy, J.P.Morgan & Company.

By way of that book and the publicity flacks that followed over the years, Bank of America is supposedly owned principally by numerous of their small account holders. A fairy tale supreme. By the 1970s, Bank America, the holding company, was owned principally by the Vatican and the Jesuits, the Pope's clever army who occassionally see fit to rebuff the Pontiff. In the 1970s, the ownership broadened out to include the French Rothschilds, wrongly identified by know-nothings as "Jewish bankers", actually very Pro-Vatican into many joint finances not exactly compatible with ordinary Jews or the State of Israel.

By the early 1990s, Bank America stock was steadily declining. More numerous than the traditional Italian and Sicilian mafia, the Japanese underworld, the Yakuza, bought their way into Bank America, becoming a major joint owner. The Yakuza now owns most every bank headquartered in California. The book "Yakuza" by Dubro and Kaplan, tells a lot about the Japanese mafia. In Osaka, Japan, the Yakuza is actually an adjunct of the local police. According to a discussion by the authors on a radio program, more than half of the new buildings built downtown Chicago in the 1980s are owned by the Yakuza. Later in the 1990s, Bank of America and the Giannini family merged their interests publicly with Continental Bank, although the Chicago-based and San Francisco-based money ships had been more or less joined at the hip privately long before that. The office buildings in which are also housed the Chicago Mercantile Exchange, are reportedly bankrupt because of low occupancy but owned reportedly by the Yakuza.

[Some contend O.J. Simpson was framed up for the two murders because of financial problems developed in enterprises in California he once greatly owned but given, in part, to his ex-wife, Nicole, part of the divorce. Those businesses reportedly were money laundries for the dope traffic controlled by the Yakuza in murderous competition with the Mexican dope gang, the Herreras. OJ once reported to the police that strange orientals were trying to kill him.]

On behalf of the Pope, the Giannini family has operated in the Chicago-area a so-far low-key operation called First National Bank of Cicero. Historically, Cicero has been the mafia enclave adjunct to Chicago's old West Side. A dominant force in with the Gianninis and that Bank has been Bishop Paul Marcinkus, originally running aa Catholic Church in Cicero. Marcinkus went on to become head of the Institute of Religious Works [IOR] commonly called the Vatican Bank. Marcinkus fled the Vatican and took up refuge in Chicago, late in 1991.

Shortly after Marcinkus returned to Chicago, a purported asset for Israeli intelligence, the Mossad, in December, 1991, was found murdered, mafia-style, not far from the First National Bank of Cicero. A U.S. Bankruptcy Court auctioneer who corruptly skimmed off funds from Bankrupt Estates to contribute to Israel, Wallace Lieberman tried to shake down the Giannini family, their bank in Cicero, and related others, threatening to expose their role in the corrupt traffic in illicit gold, arms, radioactive materials, and such; that they acted jointly with the American CIA, the traditional Italian and Sicilian mafia, and Bank of America.

The murder of Lieberman was announced in the heavily pro-Vatican and pro-British monarchy Chicago Tribune, in their edition for Christmas Day, 1991, an ironic twist not lost on everyone. Shortly thereafter, Lieberman's son, Barry, was framed up on U.S. treason charges. Barry Lieberman was supposedly caught in the process of supposedly selling to the State of Israel, certain stolen top U.S. military electronic counter-measure radar secret equipment. Actually, equipment abandoned by U.S. forces in the Iraqi and Saudi desert after the short Persian Gulf War.

With the help of Marcinkus and the Giannini family, an Illinois State Senator, Judy Baar Topinka, from the Berwyn-Cicero area, was elected in 1994, as Illinois Treasurer. On our TV Show in October of that year, she praised the First National Bank of Cicero and former Vatican Bank Chief Marcinkus who she said she knew. She had previously, in some capacity or another, acted as public relations flack for the bank in Cicero. Topinka was re-elected in 1998. So,the former Vatican Bank crooked helped install the woman who is in charge of all the State money of Illinois.

After leaving Chicago, sometime after 1991, Marcinkus took up residence in Sun City, Arizona. Italian authorities have tried repeatedly, to no avail, to force the U.S. to send Marcinkus back to Italy for prosecution for crimes implicating him and the Vatican Bank, the American CIA, and the traditional mafia, in assassination financing, arms smuggling, and illegal trafficking in stolen gold, counterfeit currencies, stolen bond, and radioactive materials. Marcinkus fought off all such attempts to send him back to Italy, by sheltering himself in his Vatican passport, the Vatican, after all, being a separate sovereignty from the Republic of Italy.

Briefly surfacing in December, 1995, was a related scandal. A retired agent of the American CIA, living in Italy with dual U.S.-Italian citizenship, was arrested by the Italian police. Roger D'Onofrio was charged with being implicated with at least ten others in illegal trafficking in stolen gold, stolen bonds, exceptionally good quality counterfeit currencies destabilizing the economies of various countries, and trafficking in osmium nuclear bomb detonators and other radioactive materials. Reportedly implicated with D'Onofrio were a ring that included the former Vatican Bank Chief Paul Marcinkus, the Archbishop of Barcelona, Spain, and the First National Bank of Cicero. Earlier, D'Onofrio had been described by a witness as the CIA's paymaster with the task of making secret payments to CIA assets and business partners.

Other witnesses reportedly contend that D'Onofrio's team were the ones reportedly arranging to poison Pope John Paul 1st who was murdered after only 33 days in office. That Pontiff wanted to stop the Vatican Bank and Marcinkus from dirty business with the American CIA and the traditional mafia.

No coincidence. After Marcinkus returned to Chicago late in 1991, set up in Chicago about the same time was the North American office of the super-secret Catholic organization, Opus Dei. This was done reportedly with the aid of the Archbishop of Milan, Italy.

In August, 1995, we did a taped TV Show, partly on-location, right near the First National Bank of Cicero, pointing out their criminal enterprises with Marcinkus, Topinka, and a confidant of that Bank, John Tarullo who lived nearby. Tarullo was once a member of the London Gold Pool and arranged clandestine shipments of stolen gold for the American CIA and the traditional mafia, as well as other criminal cartels. He was closely aligned with the Archbishop of Milan and, some say, also the Archbishop of Barcelona. [Note: Wallace Lieberman's body was found betweeen the bank and the not faraway residence of Tarullo.] Tarullo was murdered on the day our TV Show was cablecast.

The Vatican has a major interest in a world-wide chain of Hotels and Motels called Ramada. A member of the Giannini family, Steven Belmonte [his mother is a Giannini], has been a top operating official of the chain. According to persistent off the record reports by very well informed law enforcement, Ramada reportedly is in some way implicated in vast money laundering of illicit funds, smuggled gold, and proceeds from the dope and arms traffic. Or, at the very minimum, traffickers and money launders of the same somehow find it convenient if not safe and secure, to meet at various Ramada locations. Why?

Since about 1983, there have been a series of state and federal lawsuits by Joseph Andreuccetti, a Chicago-area caulking contractor. He has contended that First National Bank of Cicero, in combination with other banks and savings & loans, misappropriated tens of millions of dollars of funds, assets, and properties belonging to him. In the process, an extensive real estate development in a western suburb, called Kingspoint Condominiums, owned by him, was stolen by corrupt top IRS offiicals in the Chicago region, for their own personal benefit and not for the Public Treasury. The Acting Inspector General, Robert Cesca, arranged reportedly to cover it up. Cesca has been described by law enforcement personnel, as "the highest ranking mafia representative in the U.S. government".

About 1983, a federal agency parked 58.4 million dollars in federal funds with Household Bank and Household International [described by some as CIA proprietary operations]. This was to make good Andreuccetti's pending claims. About 1988, 50 million dollars of that disappeared, and was secretly transferred to Little Rock,Arkansas, to try to cover up a 47 million dollar S & L embezzlement for which Bill and Hillary Clinton are subject to federal criminal prosecution and upon conviction, federal prison.

Joseph Andreuccetti, a member of the Giannini Family, contends some in the Family want him silenced because of all the details coming out through his extensive litigation about the financial octopus linked to other Giannini family members, former Vatican Bank Chief and crook Marcinkus, the Giannini-linked First National Bank of Cicero, the merger of two corrupt enterprises, Bank of America and Continental Bank, and the involvement of CIA proprietary Household International and Household Bank. Household is the alter ego and successor to the CIA's Nugan-Hand Bank which disappeared in 1980.

Arriving in the fall of 1999 in the Chicago area and closely tracking him, Joseph Andreuccetti contends, has been a "hit" team head, known abroad as "The Sweet Assassin" by the way the killer boss is friendly to his target, kissing the target on the cheek, and then arranging some form of rub-out. This top killer has total immunity, U.S. and Italy, and elsewhere, and has co-ordinated his doings reportedly with the American CIA, primarily in Italy, and with the Italian military intelligence service, SISMI. These efforts are likewise intersected with the operations of Propaganda Due, known as P-2, a super-secret society pledged to overthrowing representative governments and re-instituting Fascism, the Iron Fist. P-2 has members in Italy, France, the United Kingdom, and the U.S., including judges, legislators, journalists, executive department and cabinet members, espionage officials, and civil and military brass. Reported members include former American secret political police chief George Herbert Walker Bush and retired war industry chieftain Alexander Haig, once head of NATO.

WATCH FOR PART TWO, more about all this.